Associated Legendre functions
legendre function to operate on a vector and then examine the format of the output.
Calculate the second-degree Legendre function values of a vector.
deg = 2; x = 0:0.1:0.2; P = legendre(deg,x)
P = 3×3 -0.5000 -0.4850 -0.4400 0 -0.2985 -0.5879 3.0000 2.9700 2.8800
The format of the output is such that:
Each row contains the function value for different values of m (the order of the associated Legendre function)
Each column contains the function value for a different value of x
The equation for the second-degree associated Legendre function is
Therefore, the value of is
This result agrees with
P(1,1) = -0.5000.
Calculate the associated Legendre function values with several normalizations.
Calculate the first-degree, unnormalized Legendre function values . The first row of values corresponds to , and the second row to .
x = 0:0.2:1; n = 1; P_unnorm = legendre(n,x)
P_unnorm = 2×6 0 0.2000 0.4000 0.6000 0.8000 1.0000 -1.0000 -0.9798 -0.9165 -0.8000 -0.6000 0
Next, compute the Schmidt seminormalized function values. Compared to the unnormalized values, the Schmidt form differs when by the scaling
For the first row, the two normalizations are the same, since . For the second row, the scaling constant multiplying each value is -1.
P_sch = legendre(n,x,'sch')
P_sch = 2×6 0 0.2000 0.4000 0.6000 0.8000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9798 0.9165 0.8000 0.6000 0
C1 = (-1) * sqrt(2*factorial(0)/factorial(2))
C1 = -1
Lastly, compute the fully normalized function values. Compared to the unnormalized values, the fully normalized form differs by the scaling factor
This scaling factor applies for all values of , so the first and second rows have different scaling factors.
P_norm = legendre(n,x,'norm')
P_norm = 2×6 0 0.2449 0.4899 0.7348 0.9798 1.2247 0.8660 0.8485 0.7937 0.6928 0.5196 0
Cm0 = sqrt((3/2))
Cm0 = 1.2247
Cm1 = (-1) * sqrt((3/2)/2)
Cm1 = -0.8660
Spherical harmonics arise in the solution to Laplace's equation and are used to represent functions defined on the surface of a sphere. Use
legendre to compute and visualize the spherical harmonic for .
The equation for spherical harmonics includes a term for the Legendre function, as well as a complex exponential:
First, create a grid of values to represent all combinations of (colatitude angle) and (azimuthal angle). Here, the colatitude ranges from 0 at the North Pole, to at the Equator, and to at the South Pole.
dx = pi/60; col = 0:dx:pi; az = 0:dx:2*pi; [phi,theta] = meshgrid(az,col);
Calculate on the grid for .
l = 3; Plm = legendre(l,cos(theta));
legendre computes the answer for all values of ,
Plm contains some extra function values. Extract the values for and discard the rest. Use the
reshape function to orient the results as a matrix with the same size as
m = 2; if l ~= 0 Plm = reshape(Plm(m+1,:,:),size(phi)); end
Calculate the spherical harmonic values for .
a = (2*l+1)*factorial(l-m); b = 4*pi*factorial(l+m); C = sqrt(a/b); Ylm = C .*Plm .*exp(1i*m*phi);
Convert the spherical coordinates to Cartesian coordinates. Here, becomes the latitude angle that ranges from at the North Pole, to 0 at the Equator, and to at the South Pole. Plot the spherical harmonic for using both the positive and negative real values.
[Xm,Ym,Zm] = sph2cart(phi, pi/2-theta, abs(real(Ylm))); surf(Xm,Ym,Zm) title('$Y_3^2$ spherical harmonic','interpreter','latex')
n— Degree of Legendre function
Degree of Legendre function, specified as a positive integer. For a specified
legendre computes for all orders m from m = 0 to m = n.
X— Input values
Input values, specified as a scalar, vector, matrix, or multidimensional array of
real values in the range
[-1,1]. For example, with spherical
harmonics it is common to use
X = cos(theta) as the input values to
normalization— Normalization type
Normalization type, specified as one of these values.
|Associated Legendre Functions|
|Schmidt Seminormalized Associated Legendre Functions|
|Fully Normalized Associated Legendre Functions|
P— Associated Legendre function values
Associated Legendre function values, returned as a scalar, vector, matrix, or
multidimensional array. The normalization of
P depends on the value
The size of
P depends on the size of
X is a vector, then
P is a matrix of
P(m+1,i) entry is the associated Legendre function of degree
n and order
m evaluated at
P has one more dimension than
X and each element
contains the associated Legendre function of degree
n and order
m evaluated at
The values of the unnormalized associated Legendre function overflow the range of
double-precision numbers for
n > 150 and the range of single-precision
n > 28. This overflow results in
NaN values. For orders larger than these thresholds, consider using the
'norm' normalizations instead.
The associated Legendre functions are solutions to the general Legendre differential equation
n is the integer degree and m is the integer order of the associated Legendre function, such that .
The associated Legendre functions are the most general solutions to this equation given by
They are defined in terms of derivatives of the Legendre polynomials , which are a subset of the solutions given by
The first few Legendre polynomials are
|Value of |
The Schmidt seminormalized associated Legendre functions are related to the unnormalized associated Legendre functions by
The fully normalized associated Legendre functions are normalized such that
The normalized functions are related to the unnormalized associated Legendre functions by
legendre uses a three-term backward recursion relationship in
m. This recursion is on a version of the Schmidt seminormalized
associated Legendre functions , which are complex spherical harmonics. These functions are related to the
standard Abramowitz and Stegun  functions by
They are related to the Schmidt form by
 Abramowitz, M. and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Dover Publications, 1965, Ch.8.
 Jacobs, J. A., Geomagnetism, Academic Press, 1987, Ch.4.
This function fully supports GPU arrays. For more information, see Run MATLAB Functions on a GPU (Parallel Computing Toolbox).