# Sine Wave

Generate continuous or discrete sine wave

• Libraries:
DSP System Toolbox / Sources
DSP System Toolbox HDL Support / Sources

## Description

The Sine Wave block generates a multichannel real or complex sinusoidal signal, with independent amplitude, frequency, and phase in each output channel. The block supports floating point and signed fixed-point data types.

The block generates a real sinusoidal signal when you set the Output complexity parameter to `Real`. The real sinusoidal output is defined by an expression of the type

`$y=A\mathrm{sin}\left(2\pi ft+\varphi \right)$`

where you specify A in the Amplitude parameter, f in hertz in the Frequency parameter, and ϕ in radians in the Phase offset parameter.

The block generates a complex exponential signal when you set the Output complexity parameter to `Complex`. This complex exponential signal is defined by an expression of the type

`$y=A{e}^{j\left(2\pi ft+\varphi \right)}=A\left\{\mathrm{cos}\left(2\pi ft+\varphi \right)+j\mathrm{sin}\left(2\pi ft+\varphi \right)\right\}$`

### Generating Multichannel Outputs

For both real and complex sinusoids, the Amplitude, Frequency, and Phase offset parameter values (A, f, and ϕ) can be scalars or length-N vectors, where N is the desired number of channels in the output. When you specify at least one of these parameters as a length-N vector, scalar values specified for the other parameters are applied to every channel.

For example, to generate the three-channel output containing the following real sinusoids, set the block parameters as shown:

• Output complexity = `Real`

• Amplitude = `[1 2 3]`

• Frequency = `[1000 500 250]`

• Phase offset = `[0 0 pi/2]`

## Ports

### Output

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Output a sinusoidal signal as a scalar or vector. For more information about output complexity, see Description. For information about multichannel support, see Generating Multichannel Outputs.

Tip

To output fixed-point data types, you must set Sample mode to `Discrete` and Computation method to ```Table lookup```.

Data Types: `single` | `double` | `fixed point`
Complex Number Support: Yes

## Parameters

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### Main

A length-N vector containing the amplitudes of the sine waves in each of N output channels, or a scalar to be applied to all N channels. The vector length must be the same as that specified for the Frequency and Phase offset parameters.

Tip

This parameter is tunable (Simulink) only when the Computation method is ```Trigonometric fcn``` or `Differential`.

Tunable: Yes

A length-N vector containing frequencies, in hertz, of the sine waves in each of N output channels, or a scalar to be applied to all N channels. The vector length must be the same as that specified for the Amplitude and Phase offset parameters. You can specify positive, zero, or negative frequencies.

Tip

This parameter is tunable (Simulink) when you set either:

• Sample mode to `Continuous`.

• Sample mode to `Discrete` and Computation method to `Trigonometric fcn`.

Tunable: Yes

A length-N vector containing the phase offsets, in radians, of the sine waves in each of N output channels, or a scalar to be applied to all N channels. The vector length must be the same as that specified for the Amplitude and Frequency parameters.

Tip

This parameter is tunable (Simulink) when you set either:

• Sample mode to `Continuous`.

• Sample mode to `Discrete` and Computation method to `Trigonometric fcn`.

Tunable: Yes

Specify the sampling mode as `Continuous` or `Discrete`:

• `Continuous`

In continuous mode, the sinusoid in the ith channel, yi, is computed as a continuous function,

`$\begin{array}{ll}{y}_{i}={A}_{i}\mathrm{sin}\left(2\pi {f}_{i}t+{\varphi }_{i}\right)\hfill & \text{(real)}\hfill \\ \begin{array}{l}\\ \text{or}\\ \end{array}\hfill & \hfill \\ {y}_{i}={A}_{i}{e}^{j\left(2\pi {f}_{i}t+{\varphi }_{i}\right)}\hfill & \text{(complex)}\hfill \end{array}$`

and the block's output is continuous. In this mode, the block operates the same as the Simulink® Sine Wave block with Sample time set to `0`. This mode offers high accuracy, but requires trigonometric function evaluations at each simulation step, which is computationally expensive. Also, because this method tracks absolute simulation time, a discontinuity will eventually occur when the time value reaches its maximum limit.

Note also that many DSP System Toolbox™ blocks do not accept continuous-time inputs.

• `Discrete`

In discrete mode, the block can generate discrete-time output by directly evaluating the trigonometric function, by table lookup, or by a differential method. For more information on these computation methods, see Algorithms.

The type of waveform to generate: `Real` specifies a real sine wave, `Complex` specifies a complex exponential.

The method by which discrete-time sinusoids are generated: `Trigonometric fcn`, ```Table lookup```, or `Differential`. For more information on each of the available options, see Algorithms.

#### Dependencies

This parameter is only visible when you set the Sample mode to `Discrete`.

Note

To generate fixed-point sinusoids, you must set the Computation method to `Table lookup`.

Optimizes the table of sine values for `Speed` or `Memory`. When optimized for speed, the table contains k elements, and when optimized for memory, the table contains k/4 elements, where k is the number of input samples in one full period of the sine wave.

#### Dependencies

This parameter is only visible when you set the Computation method parameter to `Table lookup`.

The period with which the sine wave is sampled, Ts, as a finite scalar, greater than zero. The output frame period of the block is MTs, where you specify M in the Samples per frame parameter.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Sample mode to `Discrete`.

The number of consecutive samples from each sinusoid to buffer into the output frame, M, specified as a positive scalar integer. This parameter is not tunable.

The block output is an M-by-N matrix with frame period MTs, where you specify Ts in the Sample time parameter.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Sample mode to `Discrete`.

This parameter determines the behavior of the Sine Wave block when an enabled subsystem is reenabled. The block can either reset itself to its starting state (```Restart at time zero```), or resume generating the sinusoid based on the current simulation time (```Catch up to simulation time```).

#### Dependencies

This parameter only applies when the Sine Wave block is located inside an enabled subsystem and the States when enabling parameter of the Enable (Simulink) block is set to `reset`.

### Data Types

Select how you would like to specify the data type properties of the Output data type. You can choose:

• `Inherit` — Lets you specify a rule for inheriting a data type, for example, ```Inherit: Inherit via back propagation```

• `Built in`— Lets you specify a built in data type, for example, `double`

• `Fixed point` — Lets you specify the fixed-point attributes of the data type.

• `Expression` — Lets you specify an expression that evaluates to a valid data type, for example, `fixdt(1,16)`

### Data Type Assistant

Select how you would like to specify the data type properties of the Output data type. You can choose:

• `Inherit` — Lets you specify a rule for inheriting a data type, for example, ```Inherit: Inherit via back propagation```

• `Built in`— Lets you specify a built-in data type, for example, `double`

• `Fixed point` — Lets you specify the fixed-point attributes of the data type.

• `Expression` — Lets you specify an expression that evaluates to a valid data type, for example, `fixdt(1,16)`

Specify the signedness of the fixed-point output. For more information, see Specify Data Types Using Data Type Assistant (Simulink).

#### Limitations

The Sine Wave only supports `Signed` data types.

Specify the method for scaling your fixed-point data to avoid overflow conditions and minimize quantization errors. For more information, see Specify Data Types Using Data Type Assistant (Simulink).

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Mode to `Fixed point`

Specify the bit size of the word that holds the quantized integer as a positive integer from 2 to 128. For more information, see Specify Data Types Using Data Type Assistant (Simulink).

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Mode to `Fixed point`

Specify the fraction length of the fixed-point data type as a positive or negative integer scalar.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Mode to `Fixed point` and Scaling to ```Binary point```.

Select the data type override mode for this signal. You can select:

• `Inherit` — Inherits the data type override setting specified for the model.

• `Off` — Ignores the data type override setting specified for the model and uses the fixed-point data type you specify.

#### Dependencies

To enable this parameter, set Mode to `Built in` or ```Fixed point```. For more information, see Specify Data Types Using Data Type Assistant (Simulink).

## Block Characteristics

 Data Types `double` | `fixed point` | `integer` | `single` Direct Feedthrough `no` Multidimensional Signals `no` Variable-Size Signals `no` Zero-Crossing Detection `no`

## Algorithms

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When you select `Discrete` from the Sample mode parameter, the secondary Computation method parameter provides three options for generating the discrete sinusoid: `Trigonometric fcn`, ```Table lookup```, and `Differential`.

## Version History

Introduced before R2006a