This section discusses these aspects of the Chebyshev spline construction:

The *Chebyshev spline* *C*=*C*_{t}=*C*_{k,t} of
order *k* for the knot sequence *t*=(*t*_{i}: *i*=1:*n*+*k*) is
the unique element of *S*_{k,t} of
max-norm 1 that maximally oscillates on the interval [*t*_{k}..*t*_{n+1}]
and is positive near *t*_{n+1}.
This means that there is a unique strictly increasing *n*-sequence
τ so that the function *C*=*C*_{t}∊*S*_{k,t} given
by *C*(τ_{i})=(–1)^{n –
1}, all *i*, has
max-norm 1 on [*t*_{k}..*t*_{n+1}].
This implies that τ_{1}=*t*_{k},τ_{n}=*t*_{n+1},
and that *t*_{i} <
τ_{i }< *t*_{k+i},
for all *i*. In fact, *t*_{i+1} ≤
τ_{i }≤ *t*_{i+k–1},
all *i*. This brings up the point that the knot sequence
is assumed to make such an inequality possible, i.e., the elements
of *S*_{k,t} are
assumed to be continuous.

In short, the Chebyshev spline *C* looks just like
the Chebyshev
polynomial. It performs similar functions. For example, its extreme
sites τ are particularly good
sites to interpolate at from *S*_{k,t} because
the norm of the resulting projector is about as small as can be; see
the toolbox command `chbpnt`

.

You can run the example Construction of a Chebyshev Spline to
construct *C* for a particular knot sequence *t*.

You deal with cubic splines, i.e., with order

k = 4;

and use the break sequence

breaks = [0 1 1.1 3 5 5.5 7 7.1 7.2 8]; lp1 = length(breaks);

and use simple interior knots, i.e., use the knot sequence

t = breaks([ones(1,k) 2:(lp1-1) lp1(:,ones(1,k))]); n = length(t)-k;

Note the quadruple knot at each end. Because `k = 4`

,
this makes [0..8] = [`breaks(1)`

..`breaks`

(`lp1`

)]
the interval [*t*_{k}..*t*_{n+1}]
of interest, with `n = length(t)`

-`k `

the
dimension of the resulting spline space *S*_{k,t}.
The same knot sequence would have been supplied by

t=augknt(breaks,k);

As the initial guess for the τ, use the knot averages

$${t}_{i}=({t}_{i+1}+\mathrm{...}+{t}_{i+k-1})/(k-1)$$

recommended as good interpolation site choices. These are supplied by

tau=aveknt(t,k);

Plot the resulting first approximation to *C*,
i.e., the spline *c* that satisfies *c*(τ_{i})=(–1)^{n-–i},
all *i*:

b = cumprod(repmat(-1,1,n)); b = b*b(end); c = spapi(t,tau,b); fnplt(c,'-.') grid

Here is the resulting plot.

**First Approximation to a Chebyshev Spline**

Starting from this approximation, you use the Remez algorithm to produce a sequence
of splines converging to *C*. This means that you
construct new τ as the extrema of your current approximation *c* to *C* and
try again. Here is the entire loop.

You find the new interior τ_{i} as
the zeros of *Dc*, i.e., the first derivative of *c*,
in several steps. First, differentiate:

Dc = fnder(c);

Next, take the zeros of the control polygon of *Dc* as your first guess for
the zeros of *Dc*. For this, you must take apart
the spline `Dc`

.

[knots,coefs,np,kp] = fnbrk(Dc,'knots','coefs','n','order');

The control polygon has the vertices (`tstar(i)`

,`coefs(i)`

),
with `tstar`

the knot averages for the spline, provided
by `aveknt`

:

tstar = aveknt(knots,kp);

Here are the zeros of the resulting control polygon of `Dc`

:

npp = (1:np-1); guess = tstar(npp) -coefs(npp).*(diff(tstar)./diff(coefs));

This provides already a very good first guess for the actual zeros.

Refine this estimate for the zeros of *Dc* by
two steps of the secant
method, taking `tau`

and the resulting `guess`

as
your first approximations. First, evaluate *Dc* at
both sets:

sites = tau(ones(4,1),2:n-1); sites(1,:) = guess; values = zeros(4,n-2); values(1:2,:) = reshape(fnval(Dc,sites(1:2,:)),2,n-2);

Now come two steps of the secant method. You guard against division
by zero by setting the function value difference to 1 in case it is
zero. Because *Dc* is strictly monotone near the
sites sought, this is harmless:

for j=2:3 rows = [j,j-1];Dcd=diff(values(rows,:)); Dcd(find(Dcd==0)) = 1; sites(j+1,:) = sites(j,:) ... -values(j,:).*(diff(sites(rows,:))./Dcd); values(j+1,:) = fnval(Dc,sites(j+1,:)); end

The check

max(abs(values.')) ans = 4.1176 5.7789 0.4644 0.1178

shows the improvement.

Now take these sites as your new `tau`

,

tau = [tau(1) sites(4,:) tau(n)];

and check the extrema values of your current approximation there:

extremes = abs(fnval(c, tau));

The difference

max(extremes)-min(extremes) ans = 0.6905

is an estimate of how far you are from total leveling.

Construct a new spline corresponding to the new choice of `tau`

and
plot it on top of the old:

c = spapi(t,tau,b); sites = sort([tau (0:100)*(t(n+1)-t(k))/100]); values = fnval(c,sites); hold on, plot(sites,values)

The following code turns on the grid and plots the locations of the extrema.

grid on plot( tau(2:end-1), zeros( 1, np-1 ), 'o' ) hold off legend( 'Initial Guess', 'Current Guess', 'Extreme Locations',... 'location', 'NorthEastOutside' );

Following is the resulting figure (legend not shown).

**A More Nearly Level Spline**

If this is not close enough, one simply reiterates the loop.
For this example, the next iteration already produces *C* to
graphic accuracy.