# Channel gain / path loss in simulation in wireless communication

59 views (last 30 days)
Thien Hieu on 26 Jul 2023
Commented: Thien Hieu on 25 Aug 2023
Hi everyone, I would like to ask: I have seen some papers use the path loss model of , some use . I see these are much different, so I would like to make sure that in which case I should use which model, and could you give me a proper document discussing about this also if you know?
Thank you so much ^^

Animesh on 25 Aug 2023
Hello Thien Hieu,
I understand that you wish to know about different Path Loss models and their use-cases.
Please know that Path Loss models are used to estimate the attenuation of signal strength as it propagates through a wireless communication channel. The choice of a Path Loss model depends on various factors, such as the environment, frequency of operation, distance, and specific characteristics of the wireless system. Different models have been developed to capture these variations.
To determine which Path Loss model to use, you should consider the specific requirements and characteristics of your wireless communication scenario. Some commonly used path loss models include:
1. Free Space Path Loss (FSPL): This model assumes an idealized scenario with no obstacles or interference. It is suitable for outdoor environments with direct line-of-sight propagation and is often used as a baseline reference for comparison.“FSPL (dB) = 20 log10(d) + 20 log10(f) - 147.55”, where ‘d’ is the distance between the transmitter and receiver in meters, and ‘f’ is the frequency in MHz.
2. Log-Distance Path Loss (LDPL): This model incorporates additional factors like the path loss exponent and reference distance to account for non-line-of-sight propagation and obstacles. It is commonly used in urban environments where buildings and structures affect signal propagation. “LDPL (dB) = PL(d0) + 10n log10(d/d0)”,where ‘PL(d0)’ is the path loss at reference distance ‘d0’, ‘n’ is the path loss exponent, and ‘d’ is the distance between the transmitter and receiver.
3. Okumura-Hata Model: This model is widely used for urban and suburban areas. It considers factors such as frequency, base station height, and distance to estimate path loss. It has different versions based on the environment, such as urban, suburban, and open areas.“Okumura-Hata (dB) = PL(d0) + A + B log10(d)”,where ‘PL(d0)’ is the path loss at reference distance ‘d0’, ‘A’ is the constant term, ‘B’ is the term related to the frequency, and d is the distance between the transmitter and receiver.
Please note that these equations provide a simplified representation of Path Loss, and the specific values of constants and parameters may vary depending on the model and environment.
I hope this helps!
Thien Hieu on 25 Aug 2023
Thank you so much for your answer. This helps me a lot ^^