# transformPointsForward

Apply forward geometric transformation

## Syntax

## Description

## Examples

### Apply Forward Transformation of 2-D Geometric Transformation

Define a 3-by-3 geometric transformation matrix. This example specifies a matrix for an affine transformation consisting of vertical shear and horizontal stretch.

A = [1.5 0 0; 0.8 1 0; 0 0 1];

Create an `affinetform2d`

object from the transformation matrix.

tform = affinetform2d(A);

Apply the forward geometric transformation to an input point.

u = 5; v = 10; [x,y] = transformPointsForward(tform,u,v)

x = 7.5000

y = 14

### Transform Coordinate Arrays Using Custom 2-D Transformation

Specify the x- and y-coordinates vectors of five points to transform.

x = [10 11 15 2 2]; y = [15 32 34 7 10];

Define the inverse and forward mapping functions. Both functions accept and return points in packed (x,y) format.

inversefn = @(c) [c(:,1).^2,sqrt(c(:,2))]; forwardfn = @(c) [sqrt(c(:,1)),c(:,2).^2];

Create a 2-D geometric transform object, `tform`

, that stores the inverse mapping function and the optional forward mapping function.

tform = geometricTransform2d(inversefn,forwardfn)

tform = geometricTransform2d with properties: InverseFcn: @(c)[c(:,1).^2,sqrt(c(:,2))] ForwardFcn: @(c)[sqrt(c(:,1)),c(:,2).^2] Dimensionality: 2

Apply the inverse geometric transform to the input points.

[u,v] = transformPointsInverse(tform,x,y)

`u = `*1×5*
100 121 225 4 4

`v = `*1×5*
3.8730 5.6569 5.8310 2.6458 3.1623

Apply the forward geometric transform to the transformed points `u`

and `v`

.

[x,y] = transformPointsForward(tform,u,v)

`x = `*1×5*
10 11 15 2 2

`y = `*1×5*
15.0000 32.0000 34.0000 7.0000 10.0000

### Apply Forward Transformation of 3-D Geometric Transformation

Define a rigid geometric transformation consisting only of translation.

t = [10 20.5 15]; tform = transltform3d(t);

Apply the forward geometric transformation to an input point.

u = 1; v = 1; w = 1.01; [x,y,z] = transformPointsForward(tform,u,v,w)

x = 11

y = 21.5000

z = 16.0100

### Transform Coordinate Arrays Using Custom 3-D Transformation

Specify the *x*-, *y*- and the *z*-coordinate vectors of five points to transform.

x = [3 5 7 9 11]; y = [2 4 6 8 10]; z = [5 9 13 17 21];

Define the inverse and forward mapping functions that accept and return points in packed (*x*,*y*,*z*) format.

inverseFcn = @(c)[c(:,1).^2,c(:,2).^2,c(:,3).^2]; forwardFcn = @(c)[sqrt(c(:,1)),sqrt(c(:,2)),sqrt(c(:,3))];

Create a 3-D geometric transformation object, `tform`

, that stores these inverse and forward mapping functions.

tform = geometricTransform3d(inverseFcn,forwardFcn)

tform = geometricTransform3d with properties: InverseFcn: @(c)[c(:,1).^2,c(:,2).^2,c(:,3).^2] ForwardFcn: @(c)[sqrt(c(:,1)),sqrt(c(:,2)),sqrt(c(:,3))] Dimensionality: 3

Apply the inverse transformation of this 3-D geometric transformation to the input points.

[u,v,w] = transformPointsInverse(tform,x,y,z)

`u = `*1×5*
9 25 49 81 121

`v = `*1×5*
4 16 36 64 100

`w = `*1×5*
25 81 169 289 441

Apply the forward geometric transform to the transformed points `u`

, `v`

, and `w`

*.*

[x,y,z] = transformPointsForward(tform,u,v,w)

`x = `*1×5*
3 5 7 9 11

`y = `*1×5*
2 4 6 8 10

`z = `*1×5*
5 9 13 17 21

## Input Arguments

`tform`

— Geometric transformation

geometric transformation object

Geometric transformation, specified as a geometric transformation object listed in the table.

Geometric Transformation Object | Description |
---|---|

2-D
Linear Geometric Transformations | |

`transltform2d` | Translation transformation |

`rigidtform2d` | Rigid transformation: translation and rotation |

`simtform2d` | Similarity transformation: translation, rotation, and isotropic scaling |

`affinetform2d` | Affine transformation: translation, rotation, anisotropic scaling, reflection, and shearing |

`projtform2d` | Projective transformation |

3-D
Linear Geometric Transformations | |

`transltform3d` | Translation transformation |

`rigidtform3d` | Rigid transformation: translation and rotation |

`simtform3d` | Similarity transformation: translation, rotation, and isotropic scaling |

`affinetform3d` | Affine transformation: translation, rotation, anisotropic scaling, reflection, and shearing |

Nonlinear Geometric Transformations | |

`geometricTransform2d` | Custom 2-D geometric transformation using point-wise mapping functions |

`geometricTransform3d` | Custom 3-D geometric transformation using point-wise mapping functions |

**Note**

You can also specify `tform`

as an object of type
`rigid2d`

, `rigid3d`

, `affine2d`

, `affine3d`

, or `projective2d`

. However,
these objects are not recommended. For more information, see Version History.

`u`

— *x*-coordinates of points to be transformed

*m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array

*x*-coordinates of points to be transformed, specified as
an *m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array. The number of dimensions of `u`

matches
the dimensionality of `tform`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`v`

— *y*-coordinates of points to be transformed

*m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array

*y*-coordinates of points to be transformed, specified as
an *m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array. The size of `v`

must match the size of
`u`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`U`

— Coordinates of points to be transformed

*l*-by-*2* or
*l*-by-*3* numeric array

Coordinates of points to be transformed, specified as an
*l*-by-*2* or
*l*-by-*3* numeric array. The number
of columns of `U`

matches the dimensionality of
`tform`

.

The first column lists the *x*-coordinate of each point
to transform, and the second column lists the
*y*-coordinate. If `tform`

represents a
3-D geometric transformation, `U`

has size
*l*-by-*3* and the third column lists
the *z*-coordinate of the points to transform.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

## Output Arguments

`x`

— *x*-coordinates of points after transformation

*m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array

*x*-coordinates of points after transformation, returned
as an *m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array. The number of dimensions of `x`

matches
the dimensionality of `tform`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`y`

— *y*-coordinates of points after transformation

*m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array

*y*-coordinates of points after transformation, returned
as an *m*-by-*n* or
*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array. The size of `y`

matches the size of
`x`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`z`

— *z*-coordinates of points after transformation

*m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array

*z*-coordinates of points after transformation, returned
as an *m*-by-*n*-by-*p*
numeric array. The size of `z`

matches the size of
`x`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`X`

— Coordinates of points after transformation

numeric array

Coordinates of points after transformation, returned as a numeric array.
The size of `X`

matches the size of
`U`

.

The first column lists the *x*-coordinate of each point
after transformation, and the second column lists the
*y*-coordinate. If `tform`

represents a
3-D geometric transformation, the third column lists the
*z*-coordinate of the points after
transformation.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

## Version History

**Introduced in R2013a**

### R2022b: Supports new geometric transformation objects

Starting in R2022b, most Image Processing Toolbox™ functions create and perform geometric transformations using the
premultiply convention. Accordingly, you can now specify `tform`

as a geometric transformation object that uses the premultiply convention, such as
an `affinetform2d`

object.

Before, for linear geometric transformations, you specified
`tform`

as a geometric transformation object that uses a
postmultiply convention, such as an `affine2d`

object. Although
`transformPointsForward`

still accepts objects that use the
postmultiply convention, these objects are not recommended. For more information,
see Migrate Geometric Transformations to Premultiply Convention.

There is no change to the support for nonlinear geometric transformations.

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