Nyquist Filter
Design Nyquist filter
Library
Filtering / Filter Designs
dspfdesign
Description
This block brings the filter design capabilities of the filterBuilder
function to the Simulink^{®} environment.
This block supports SIMD code generation. For details, see Code Generation.
Dialog Box
See Nyquist Filter Design — Main Pane for more information about the parameters of this block. The Data Types and Code Generation panes are not available for blocks in the DSP System Toolbox™ Filter Designs library.
Parameters of this block that do not change filter order or structure are tunable.
 View filter response
This button opens the Filter Visualization Tool (FVTool) from the Signal Processing Toolbox™ product. You can use the tool to display:
Magnitude response, phase response, and group delay in the frequency domain.
Impulse response and step response in the time domain.
Polezero information.
The tool also helps you evaluate filter performance by providing information about filter order, stability, and phase linearity. For more information on FVTool, see the Signal Processing Toolbox documentation.
Filter Specifications
In this group, you specify your filter format, such as the impulse response and the filter order.
 Band
Specifies the location of the center of the transition region between the passband and the stopband. The center of the transition region, F_{c}, is calculated using the value for Band:
F_{c} = F_{s}/(2·Band).
The default value,
2
, corresponds to a halfband filter. Impulse response
Select either
FIR
orIIR
from the dropdown list.FIR
is the default. When you choose an impulse response, the design methods and structures you can use to implement your filter change accordingly. These options are both available only when Band is2
. For values of Band greater than2
, only FIR designs are supported.Note
The design methods and structures for FIR filters are not the same as the methods and structures for IIR filters.
 Filter order mode
Select either
Minimum
(the default) orSpecify
from the dropdown list. SelectingSpecify
enables the Order option (see the following sections) so you can enter the filter order. Filter type
Select
Singlerate
,Decimator
,Interpolator
, orSamplerate converter
. Your choice determines the type of filter as well as the design methods and structures that are available to implement your filter. By default, the block specifies a singlerate filter.Selecting
Decimator
orInterpolator
activates the Decimation Factor or the Interpolation Factor options respectively.Selecting
Samplerate converter
activates both factors.
 Order
Enter the filter order. This option is enabled only if
Specify
was selected for Filter order mode. Decimation Factor
Enter the decimation factor. This option is enabled only if the Filter type is set to
Decimator
orSamplerate converter
. The default value is 2. Interpolation Factor
Enter the interpolation factor. This option is enabled only if the Filter type is set to
Interpolator
orSamplerate converter
. The default value is 2.
Frequency Specifications
The parameters in this group allow you to specify your filter response curve.
 Frequency constraints
Select the filter features that the block uses to define the frequency response characteristics.
 Frequency units
Use this parameter to specify whether your frequency settings are normalized or in absolute frequency. Select
Normalized (0–1)
to enter frequencies in normalized form. This behavior is the default. To enter frequencies in absolute values, select one of the frequency units from the dropdown list—Hz
,kHz
,MHz
, orGHz
. Selecting one of the unit options enables the Input sample rate parameter. Input sample rate
Fs, specified in the units you selected for Frequency units, defines the sampling frequency at the filter input. When you provide an input sampling frequency, all frequencies in the specifications are in the selected units as well. This parameter is available when you select one of the frequency options from the Frequency units list.
 Transition width
Specify the width of the transition between the end of the passband and the edge of the stopband. Specify the value in normalized frequency units or the absolute units you select in Frequency units.
Magnitude Specifications
Parameters in this group specify the filter response in the passbands and stopbands.
 Magnitude units
Specify the units for any parameter you provide in magnitude specifications. From the dropdown list, select one of the following options:
Linear
— Specify the magnitude in linear units.dB
— Specify the magnitude in decibels (default)Squared
— Specify the magnitude in squared units.
 Stopband attenuation
Enter the filter attenuation in the stopband in the units you choose for Magnitude units, either linear or decibels.
Algorithm
The parameters in this group allow you to specify the design method and structure of your filter.
 Design Method
Lists the design methods available for the frequency and magnitude specifications you entered. When you change the specifications for a filter, such as changing the impulse response, the methods available to design filters changes as well. The default IIR design method is
Butterworth
, and the default FIR method isKaiser window
. Scale SOS filter coefficients to reduce chance of overflow
Selecting this parameter directs the design to scale the filter coefficients to reduce the chances that the inputs or calculations in the filter overflow and exceed the representable range of the filter. Clearing this option removes the scaling. This parameter applies only to IIR filters.
 Design Options
The options for each design are specific for each design method. This section does not present all of the available options for all designs and design methods. There are many more that you encounter as you select different design methods and filter specifications. The following options represent some of the most common ones available.
 Density factor
Density factor controls the density of the frequency grid over which the design method optimization evaluates your filter response function. The number of equally spaced points in the grid is the value you enter for Density factor times (filter order + 1).
Increasing the value creates a filter that more closely approximates an ideal equiripple filter but increases the time required to design the filter. The default value of 20 represents a reasonable trade between the accurate approximation to the ideal filter and the time to design the filter.
 Minimum order
When you select this parameter, the design method determines and design the minimum order filter to meet your specifications. Some filters do not provide this parameter. Select
Any
,Even
, orOdd
from the dropdown list to direct the design to be any minimum order, or minimum even order, or minimum odd order. Stopband Shape
Stopband shape lets you specify how the stopband changes with increasing frequency. Choose one of the following options:
Flat
— Specifies that the stopband is flat. The attenuation does not change as the frequency increases.Linear
— Specifies that the stopband attenuation changes linearly as the frequency increases. Change the slope of the stopband by setting Stopband decay.
 Stopband Decay
When you set Stopband shape, Stopband decay specifies the amount of decay applied to the stopband. the following conditions apply to Stopband decay based on the value of Stopband Shape:
When you set Stopband shape to
Flat
, Stopband decay has no affect on the stopband.When you set Stopband shape to
Linear
, enter the slope of the stopband in units of dB/rad/s. The block applies that slope to the stopband.When you set Stopband shape to
1/f
, enter a value for the exponent n in the relation (1/f)^{n} to define the stopband decay. The block applies the (1/f)^{n} relation to the stopband to result in an exponentially decreasing stopband attenuation.
Filter Implementation
 Structure
For the filter specifications and design method you select, this parameter lists the filter structures available to implement your filter.
 Use basic elements to enable filter customization
Select this check box to implement the filter as a subsystem of basic Simulink blocks. Clear the check box to implement the filter as a highlevel subsystem. By default, this check box is cleared.
The highlevel implementation provides better compatibility across various filter structures, especially filters that would contain algebraic loops when constructed using basic elements. On the other hand, using basic elements enables the following optimization parameters:
Optimize for zero gains — Terminate chains that contain Gain blocks with a gain of zero.
Optimize for unit gains — Remove Gain blocks that scale by a factor of one.
Optimize for delay chains — Substitute delay chains made up of n unit delays with a single delay by n.
Optimize for negative gains — Use subtraction in Sum blocks instead of negative gains in Gain blocks.
 Input processing
Specify how the block should process the input. The available options may vary depending on he settings of the Filter Structure and Use basic elements for filter customization parameters. You can set this parameter to one of the following options:
Columns as channels (frame based)
— When you select this option, the block treats each column of the input as a separate channel.Elements as channels (sample based)
— When you select this option, the block treats each element of the input as a separate channel.
 Rate options
When the Filter type parameter specifies a multirate filter, select the rate processing rule for the block from following options:
Enforce singlerate processing
— When you select this option, the block maintains the sample rate of the input.Allow multirate processing
— When you select this option, the block adjusts the rate at the output to accommodate an increased or reduced number of samples. To select this option, you must set the Input processing parameter toElements as channels (sample based)
.
 Use variable names for coefficients
Select this check box to enable the specification of coefficients using MATLAB^{®} variables. The available coefficient names differ depending on the filter structure. Using symbolic names allows tuning of filter coefficients in generated code. By default, this check box is cleared.
Supported Data Types
Port  Supported Data Types 

Input 

Output 

Extended Capabilities
Version History
Introduced in R2006b