Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is an algorithm implemented in photovoltaic (PV) inverters to continuously adjust the impedance seen by the solar array to keep the PV system operating at, or close to, the peak power point of the PV panel under varying conditions, like changing solar irradiance, temperature, and load.
Engineers developing solar inverters implement MPPT algorithms to maximize the power generated by PV systems. The algorithms control the voltage to ensure that the system operates at “maximum power point” (or peak voltage) on the power voltage curve, as shown below.
MPPT algorithms are typically used in the controller designs for PV systems. The algorithms account for factors such as variable irradiance (sunlight) and temperature to ensure that the PV system generates maximum power at all times.
The three most common MPPT algorithms are: