# gmdistribution

Create Gaussian mixture model

## Description

A `gmdistribution`

object stores a Gaussian mixture
distribution, also called a Gaussian mixture model (GMM), which is a multivariate
distribution that consists of multivariate Gaussian distribution components. Each
component is defined by its mean and covariance. The mixture is defined by a vector of
mixing proportions, where each mixing proportion represents the fraction of the
population described by a corresponding component.

## Creation

You can create a `gmdistribution`

model object in two ways.

Use the

`gmdistribution`

function (described here) to create a`gmdistribution`

model object by specifying the distribution parameters.Use the

`fitgmdist`

function to fit a`gmdistribution`

model object to data given a fixed number of components.

### Description

### Input Arguments

`mu`

— Means

*k*-by-*m* numeric matrix

Means of multivariate Gaussian distribution components,
specified as a *k*-by-*m* numeric matrix, where
*k* is the number of components and *m* is the number of
variables in each component. `mu(i,:)`

is the mean of component
`i`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`sigma`

— Covariances

numeric vector | numeric matrix | numeric array

Covariances of multivariate Gaussian distribution components, specified as a numeric vector, matrix, or array.

Given that *k* is the number of components and
*m* is the number of variables in each component,
`sigma`

is one of the values in this
table.

Value | Description |
---|---|

m-by-m-by-k
array | `sigma(:,:,i)` is the covariance
matrix of component `i` . |

1-by-m-by-k
array | Covariance matrices are diagonal.
`sigma(1,:,i)` contains the
diagonal elements of the covariance matrix of
component `i` . |

m-by-m
matrix | Covariance matrices are the same across components. |

1-by-m vector | Covariance matrices are diagonal and the same across components. |

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`p`

— Mixing proportions of mixture components

numeric vector of length *k*

Mixing proportions of mixture components, specified as a numeric
vector of length *k*, where *k* is the
number of components. The default is a row vector of
(1/*k*)s, which sets equal proportions. If
`p`

does not sum to `1`

,
`gmdistribution`

normalizes it.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

## Properties

### Distribution Parameters

`mu`

— Means

*k*-by-*m* numeric matrix

This property is read-only.

Means of multivariate Gaussian distribution components,
specified as a *k*-by-*m* numeric matrix, where
*k* is the number of components and *m* is the number of
variables in each component. `mu(i,:)`

is the mean of component
`i`

.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`Sigma`

— Covariances

numeric vector | numeric matrix | numeric array

This property is read-only.

Covariances of multivariate Gaussian distribution components, specified as a numeric vector, matrix, or array.

Given that *k* is the number of components and
*m* is the number of variables in each component,
`Sigma`

is one of the values in this
table.

Value | Description |
---|---|

m-by-m-by-k
array | `Sigma(:,:,i)` is the covariance
matrix of component `i` . |

1-by-m-by-k
array | Covariance matrices are diagonal.
`Sigma(1,:,i)` contains the
diagonal elements of the covariance matrix of
component `i` . |

m-by-m
matrix | Covariance matrices are the same across components. |

1-by-m vector | Covariance matrices are diagonal and the same across components. |

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`ComponentProportion`

— Mixing proportions of mixture components

1-by-*k* numeric vector

This property is read-only.

Mixing proportions of mixture components, specified as a
1-by-*k* numeric vector.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

### Distribution Characteristics

`CovarianceType`

— Type of covariance matrices

`'diagonal'`

| `'full'`

This property is read-only.

Type of covariance matrices, specified as either
`'diagonal'`

or `'full'`

.

If you create a

`gmdistribution`

object by using the`gmdistribution`

function, then the type of covariance matrices in the`sigma`

input argument of`gmdistribution`

sets this property.If you fit a

`gmdistribution`

object to data by using the`fitgmdist`

function, then the`'CovarianceType'`

name-value pair argument of`fitgmdist`

sets this property.

`DistributionName`

— Distribution name

```
'gaussian mixture
distribution'
```

(default)

This property is read-only.

Distribution name, specified as ```
'gaussian mixture
distribution'
```

.

`NumComponents`

— Number of mixture components

positive integer

This property is read-only.

Number of mixture components, *k*, specified as a
positive integer.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`NumVariables`

— Number of variables

positive integer

This property is read-only.

Number of variables in the multivariate Gaussian distribution
components, *m*, specified as a positive
integer.

**Data Types: **`double`

`SharedCovariance`

— Flag indicating shared covariance

`true`

| `false`

This property is read-only.

Flag indicating whether a covariance matrix is shared across mixture
components, specified as `true`

or
`false`

.

If you create a

`gmdistribution`

object by using the`gmdistribution`

function, then the type of covariance matrices in the`sigma`

input argument of`gmdistribution`

sets this property.If you fit a

`gmdistribution`

object to data by using the`fitgmdist`

function, then the`'SharedCovariance'`

name-value pair argument of`fitgmdist`

sets this property.

**Data Types: **`logical`

### Properties for Fitted Object

The following properties apply only to a fitted object you create by using
`fitgmdist`

. The values of these
properties are empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using
the `gmdistribution`

function.

`AIC`

— Akaike Information Criterion

scalar

This property is read-only.

Akaike information criterion (AIC), specified as a scalar.
`AIC = 2*NlogL + 2*p`

, where
`NlogL`

is the negative loglikelihood (the
`NegativeLogLikelihood`

property) and
`p`

is the number of estimated parameters.

AIC is a model selection tool you can use to compare multiple models fit to the same data. AIC is a likelihood-based measure of model fit that includes a penalty for complexity, specifically, the number of parameters. When you compare multiple models, a model with a smaller value of AIC is better.

This property is empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`BIC`

— Bayes Information Criterion

scalar

This property is read-only.

Bayes information criterion (BIC), specified as a scalar. ```
BIC
= 2*NlogL + p*log(n)
```

, where `NlogL`

is
the negative loglikelihood (the
`NegativeLogLikelihood`

property),
`n`

is the number of observations, and
`p`

is the number of estimated parameters.

BIC is a model selection tool you can use to compare multiple models fit to the same data. BIC is a likelihood-based measure of model fit that includes a penalty for complexity, specifically, the number of parameters. When you compare multiple models, a model with the lowest BIC value is the best fitting model.

This property is empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`Converged`

— Flag indicating convergence

`true`

| `false`

This property is read-only.

Flag indicating whether the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is
converged when fitting a Gaussian mixture model, specified as
`true`

or `false`

.

You can change the optimization options by using the `'Options'`

name-value pair argument of `fitgmdist`

.

This property is empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

**Data Types: **`logical`

`NegativeLogLikelihood`

— Negative loglikelihood

scalar

This property is read-only.

Negative loglikelihood of the fitted Gaussian mixture model given the
input data `X`

of
`fitgmdist`

, specified as a scalar.

This property is empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`NumIterations`

— Number of iterations

positive integer

This property is read-only.

Number of iterations in the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm, specified as a positive integer.

You can change the optimization options, including the maximum number
of iterations allowed, by using the `'Options'`

name-value pair argument of `fitgmdist`

.

This property is empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

**Data Types: **`double`

`ProbabilityTolerance`

— Tolerance for posterior probabilities

nonnegative scalar value in range `[0,1e-6]`

This property is read-only.

Tolerance for posterior probabilities, specified as a nonnegative
scalar value in the range `[0,1e-6]`

.

The `'ProbabilityTolerance'`

name-value pair argument of
`fitgmdist`

sets this property.

This property is empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

`RegularizationValue`

— Regularization parameter value

nonnegative scalar

This property is read-only.

Regularization parameter value, specified as a nonnegative scalar.

The `'RegularizationValue'`

name-value pair argument of
`fitgmdist`

sets this property.

This property is empty if you create a `gmdistribution`

object by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

**Data Types: **`single`

| `double`

## Object Functions

`cdf` | Cumulative distribution function for Gaussian mixture distribution |

`cluster` | Construct clusters from Gaussian mixture distribution |

`mahal` | Mahalanobis distance to Gaussian mixture component |

`pdf` | Probability density function for Gaussian mixture distribution |

`posterior` | Posterior probability of Gaussian mixture component |

`random` | Random variate from Gaussian mixture distribution |

## Examples

### Create Gaussian Mixture Distribution Using `gmdistribution`

Create a two-component bivariate Gaussian mixture distribution by using the `gmdistribution`

function.

Define the distribution parameters (means and covariances) of two bivariate Gaussian mixture components.

```
mu = [1 2;-3 -5];
sigma = cat(3,[2 .5],[1 1]) % 1-by-2-by-2 array
```

sigma = sigma(:,:,1) = 2.0000 0.5000 sigma(:,:,2) = 1 1

The `cat`

function concatenates the covariances along the third array dimension. The defined covariance matrices are diagonal matrices. `sigma(1,:,i)`

contains the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix of component `i`

.

Create a `gmdistribution`

object. By default, the `gmdistribution`

function creates an equal proportion mixture.

gm = gmdistribution(mu,sigma)

gm = Gaussian mixture distribution with 2 components in 2 dimensions Component 1: Mixing proportion: 0.500000 Mean: 1 2 Component 2: Mixing proportion: 0.500000 Mean: -3 -5

List the properties of the `gm`

object.

properties(gm)

Properties for class gmdistribution: NumVariables DistributionName NumComponents ComponentProportion SharedCovariance NumIterations RegularizationValue NegativeLogLikelihood CovarianceType mu Sigma AIC BIC Converged ProbabilityTolerance

You can access these properties by using dot notation. For example, access the `ComponentProportion`

property, which represents the mixing proportions of mixture components.

gm.ComponentProportion

`ans = `*1×2*
0.5000 0.5000

A `gmdistribution`

object has properties that apply only to a fitted object. The fitted object properties are `AIC`

, `BIC`

, `Converged`

, `NegativeLogLikelihood`

, `NumIterations`

, `ProbabilityTolerance`

, and `RegularizationValue`

. The values of the fitted object properties are empty if you create an object by using the `gmdistribution`

function and specifying distribution parameters. For example, access the `NegativeLogLikelihood`

property by using dot notation.

gm.NegativeLogLikelihood

ans = []

After you create a `gmdistribution`

object, you can use the object functions. Use `cdf`

and `pdf`

to compute the values of the cumulative distribution function (cdf) and the probability density function (pdf). Use `random`

to generate random vectors. Use `cluster`

, `mahal`

, and `posterior`

for cluster analysis.

Visualize the object by using `pdf`

and `fsurf`

.

gmPDF = @(x,y) arrayfun(@(x0,y0) pdf(gm,[x0 y0]),x,y); fsurf(gmPDF,[-10 10])

### Fit Gaussian Mixture Model to Data Using `fitgmdist`

Generate random variates that follow a mixture of two bivariate Gaussian distributions by using the `mvnrnd`

function. Fit a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to the generated data by using the `fitgmdist`

function.

Define the distribution parameters (means and covariances) of two bivariate Gaussian mixture components.

mu1 = [1 2]; % Mean of the 1st component sigma1 = [2 0; 0 .5]; % Covariance of the 1st component mu2 = [-3 -5]; % Mean of the 2nd component sigma2 = [1 0; 0 1]; % Covariance of the 2nd component

Generate an equal number of random variates from each component, and combine the two sets of random variates.

rng('default') % For reproducibility r1 = mvnrnd(mu1,sigma1,1000); r2 = mvnrnd(mu2,sigma2,1000); X = [r1; r2];

The combined data set `X`

contains random variates following a mixture of two bivariate Gaussian distributions.

Fit a two-component GMM to `X`

.

gm = fitgmdist(X,2)

gm = Gaussian mixture distribution with 2 components in 2 dimensions Component 1: Mixing proportion: 0.500000 Mean: -2.9617 -4.9727 Component 2: Mixing proportion: 0.500000 Mean: 0.9539 2.0261

List the properties of the `gm`

object.

properties(gm)

Properties for class gmdistribution: NumVariables DistributionName NumComponents ComponentProportion SharedCovariance NumIterations RegularizationValue NegativeLogLikelihood CovarianceType mu Sigma AIC BIC Converged ProbabilityTolerance

You can access these properties by using dot notation. For example, access the `NegativeLogLikelihood`

property, which represents the negative loglikelihood of the data `X`

given the fitted model.

gm.NegativeLogLikelihood

ans = 7.0584e+03

After you create a `gmdistribution`

object, you can use the object functions. Use `cdf`

and `pdf`

to compute the values of the cumulative distribution function (cdf) and the probability density function (pdf). Use `random`

to generate random variates. Use `cluster`

, `mahal`

, and `posterior`

for cluster analysis.

Plot `X`

by using `scatter`

. Visualize the fitted model `gm`

by using `pdf`

and `fcontour`

.

scatter(X(:,1),X(:,2),10,'.') % Scatter plot with points of size 10 hold on gmPDF = @(x,y) arrayfun(@(x0,y0) pdf(gm,[x0 y0]),x,y); fcontour(gmPDF,[-8 6])

## References

[1] McLachlan, G., and D. Peel. *Finite Mixture
Models*. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000.

## See Also

**Introduced in R2007b**

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