ss2zp

Convert state-space filter parameters to zero-pole-gain form

Syntax

``[z,p,k] = ss2zp(A,B,C,D)``
``[z,p,k] = ss2zp(A,B,C,D,ni)``

Description

example

````[z,p,k] = ss2zp(A,B,C,D)` converts a state-space representation $\begin{array}{l}\stackrel{˙}{x}=Ax+Bu\\ y=Cx+Du\end{array}$of a given continuous-time or discrete-time system to an equivalent zero-pole-gain representation $H\left(s\right)=\frac{Z\left(s\right)}{P\left(s\right)}=k\frac{\left(s-{z}_{1}\right)\left(s-{z}_{2}\right)\cdots \left(s-{z}_{n}\right)}{\left(s-{p}_{1}\right)\left(s-{p}_{2}\right)\cdots \left(s-{p}_{n}\right)}$whose zeros, poles, and gains represent the transfer function in factored form.```
````[z,p,k] = ss2zp(A,B,C,D,ni)` indicates that the system has multiple inputs and that the `ni`th input has been excited by a unit impulse.```

Examples

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Consider a discrete-time system defined by the transfer function

`$H\left(z\right)=\frac{2+3{z}^{-1}}{1+0.4{z}^{-1}+{z}^{-2}}.$`

Determine its zeros, poles, and gain directly from the transfer function. Pad the numerator with zeros so it has the same length as the denominator.

```b = [2 3 0]; a = [1 0.4 1]; [z,p,k] = tf2zp(b,a)```
```z = 2×1 0 -1.5000 ```
```p = 2×1 complex -0.2000 + 0.9798i -0.2000 - 0.9798i ```
```k = 2 ```

Express the system in state-space form and determine the zeros, poles, and gain using `ss2zp`.

```[A,B,C,D] = tf2ss(b,a); [z,p,k] = ss2zp(A,B,C,D,1)```
```z = 2×1 -1.5000 -0.0000 ```
```p = 2×1 complex -0.2000 + 0.9798i -0.2000 - 0.9798i ```
```k = 2 ```

Input Arguments

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State matrix. If the system has r inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then `A` is n-by-n.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Input-to-state matrix. If the system has r inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then `B` is n-by-r.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Input-to-state matrix. If the system has r inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then `C` is q-by-n.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Feedthrough matrix. If the system has r inputs and q outputs and is described by n state variables, then `D` is q-by-r.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Input index, specified as an integer scalar. If the system has r inputs, use `ss2zp` with a trailing argument `ni` = 1, …, r to compute the response to a unit impulse applied to the `ni`th input. Specifying this argument causes `ss2zp` to use the `ni`th columns of `B` and `D`.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Output Arguments

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Zeros of the system, returned as a matrix. `z` contains the numerator zeros in its columns. `z` has as many columns as there are outputs (rows in `C`).

Poles of the system, returned as a column vector. `p` contains the pole locations of the denominator coefficients of the transfer function.

Gains of the system, returned as a column vector. `k` contains the gains for each numerator transfer function.

Algorithms

`ss2zp` finds the poles from the eigenvalues of the `A` array. The zeros are the finite solutions to a generalized eigenvalue problem:

```z = eig([A B;C D],diag([ones(1,n) 0]); ```

In many situations, this algorithm produces spurious large, but finite, zeros. `ss2zp` interprets these large zeros as infinite.

`ss2zp` finds the gains by solving for the first nonzero Markov parameters.

References

[1] Laub, A. J., and B. C. Moore. "Calculation of Transmission Zeros Using QZ Techniques." Automatica. Vol. 14, 1978, p. 557.

Version History

Introduced before R2006a