Let's suppose you have them labeled v1, v2, ..., v10 and they're the same size n. (If they're not the same size, use a cell array instead.)
Put your vectors in an array:
v = [v1,v2,v3,v4,v5,v6,v7,v8,v9,v10];
Then loop over them:
v = randn(1000,10);
h = zeros(10,10);
p = zeros(10,10);
for i = 1:10
for j = (i+1):10
[h(i,j),p(i,j)] = ttest2(v(:,i),v(:,j));
Your values and decisions for tests i,j are in the respective element of h and p.
Notice, you don't actually need to do 9 comparisons from each vector; if you've already compared v1 and v2 you don't need to compare v2 to v1 as well.