How to use the Controlled PWM Voltage and H-Bridge blocks to control a motor. The DC Motor block uses manufacturer datasheet parameters, which specify the motor as delivering 10W mechanical power at 2500 rpm and no-load speed as 4000 rpm when run from a 12V DC supply. Hence if the PWM reference voltage is set to its maximum value of +5V, then the motor should run at 4000 rpm. If it is set to +2.5V, then it should run at approximately 2000 rpm. The Simulation model parameter is set to Averaged for both the Controlled PWM Voltage and H-Bridge blocks, resulting in fast simulation. To validate the averaged behavior, change the Simulation mode parameter to PWM in both blocks.
Model the interface between a microcontroller unit (MCU) and a physical system. Here the microcontroller's GPIO, ADC and DAC connections are used to control a DC motor and connected load with limited angle travel. Load angle measurement is via a potentiometer sensor. This measurement is calibrated by initially ramping the rotor position until the photodiode detects the zero-angle light pulse from the LED. Once calibrated the MCU commands a 0.1Hz 45 degree amplitude sinusoid.
A comparison of the torque-speed characteristics for five different motor types. To select the motor type, right-click on the Electric Motor block, select Variant->Override using and then the desired motor. All motors have been sized for roughly the same mechanical power rating.
How to develop a model of an uncontrolled linear actuator using datasheet parameter values. The actuator consists of a DC motor driving a 6.25:1 worm gear which in turn drives a 3mm lead screw to produce linear motion. Manufacturer data for the actuator defines the no-load linear speed (26mm/s), rated load (1000N), rated-load linear speed (19mm/s), and maximum current (5A). The maximum static force is 4000N and the rated voltage is 24V DC.
A detailed implementation model of a controlled linear actuator. The actuator consists of a DC motor driving a worm gear which in turn drives a lead screw to produce linear motion. The model includes quantization effects of the Hall-effect sensor and the implementation of the control in analog electronics. There are multiple variant subsystems in this model that have models at varying levels of fidelity.
How a system-level model of a brushless DC motor (i.e. a servomotor) can be constructed and parameterized based on datasheet information. The motor and driver are modeled as a single masked subsystem. If viewing the model in Simulink®, select the Motor and driver block, and type Ctrl+U to look under the mask and see the model structure.
Import a motor design from ANSYS® Maxwell® into a Simscape™ simulation.
Build a model of a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM). A custom Simscape™ composite component is used to construct the three stator pole pairs using the Simscape Electrical™ FEM-Parameterized Rotary Actuator as a base component. The states of the input pins (reverse, on/off) control the torque applied to the motor shaft.
A test harness for a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drive sized for use in a typical hybrid vehicle. The test harness can be used to determine overall drive losses when operating at a given speed and torque. Tabulated losses information from this test harness can then be used by the Simscape™ Electrical™ Servomotor block for rapid simulation of complete drive cycles whilst still accurately predicting overall system efficiency.
A test harness for a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) that validates that the iron losses are as expected. The open-circuit test validates the main flux path losses which are defined to be 500W due to hysteresis and 1500W due to eddy current losses. The short-circuit test validates the cross-tooth flux path losses which are defined to be 200W due to hysteresis and 600W due to eddy current losses.
A nonlinear model of a PMSM with thermal dependency. The PMSM behavior is defined by tabulated nonlinear flux linkage data. Motor losses are turned into heat in the stator winding and rotor thermal ports.
How to use the Stepper Motor Driver and Stepper Motor blocks together to implement a controlled permanent magnet stepper motor. The model provides two controller options: one to control position and one to control speed. To change the controller type, right-click on the Controller block, select Variant->Override using-> and select Position or Speed.
The Stepper Motor simulating in Stepping and Averaged simulation modes. The purpose of Averaged mode is faster simulation for any loads that do not cause slip. To avoid incorrect interpretation of results, the stepper motor has an approximate detection of slip which can be set to generate a warning or an error.
How to use the Unipolar Stepper Motor Driver and Unipolar Stepper Motor blocks together to implement a controlled permanent magnet stepper motor. The model provides two controller options: one to control position and one to control speed. To change the controller type, right-click on the Controller block, select Variant->Override using-> and select Position or Speed.
The Unipolar Stepper Motor simulating in Stepping and Averaged simulation modes. The purpose of Averaged mode is faster simulation for any loads that do not cause slip. To avoid incorrect interpretation of results, the stepper motor has an approximate detection of slip which can be set to generate a warning or an error.
A hybrid actuator consisting of a DC motor plus lead screw in series with a piezoelectric stack. The DC motor and lead screw combination supports large displacements (tens of millimeters), but is dynamically slow when tracking the reference demand x_ref. Conversely the piezoelectric stack only supports a maximum displacement of +-0.1mm, but has a very fast dynamic response. Combining the two actuator technologies creates a large stroke actuator with highly precise positioning.
A limited travel solenoid with return spring. When unpowered, the spring holds the plunger at a distance of 0.1mm from the fully energized position. At 0.1 seconds, the solenoid is powered on and the displacement goes to zero. At 0.06s a force higher than the holding force is applied, and the plunger moves to its maximum travel of 0.2mm. The solenoid force and back emf characteristics are defined by the FEM-Parameterized Linear Actuator block. This block takes data in the format typically provided by a finite element magnetic field modeling tool. There are two parameterization options, one which works directly with flux data, and one which uses partial derivatives of flux with respect to current and displacement. The latter option is usually the better choice, it giving more accurate results for a given density of current and position data points. However, it requires more data pre-processing.
A limited travel solenoid with return spring. Magnetic hysteresis is modeled using the Reluctance with Hysteresis library block.
How manufacturer data for torque as a function of current and angle can be used to model a torque motor. The datasheet shows linear characteristics for rotor angles between 20 and 70 degrees and for currents where saturation does not occur. Data in this range is used to parameterize the simplified model of the torque motor. Using MATLAB® to process the data points extracted from the datasheet, we can convert manufacturer data into motor parameters that are often obtained from finite element software.
How alternator behavior can be abstracted to a DC model that simulates efficiently. This test harness first ramps the alternator speed linearly from zero to a typical idle speed of 900 RPM. When the generated voltage is sufficient to overcome the forward voltage drop associated with the rectifier diodes, the battery charging current starts to ramp up. The test harness then ramps up the speed to 5000 RPM, and the alternator has to back off the field voltage to maintain the regulated voltage. The model captures the increase in stator resistance as the alternator heats up, this reducing device performance
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