Main Content

Simulate multistage nonlinear model predictive controllers

**Library:**Model Predictive Control Toolbox

The Multistage Nonlinear MPC Controller block simulates a multistage nonlinear model predictive controller. At each control interval, the block computes optimal control moves by solving a nonlinear programming problem in which different cost functions and constraints are defined for different prediction steps (stage). For more information on nonlinear MPC, see Nonlinear MPC.

To use this block, you must first create an `nlmpcMultistage`

object
in the MATLAB^{®} workspace.

None of the Multistage Nonlinear MPC Controller block parameters are tunable.

`x`

— inputvector

Current prediction model states, specified as a vector signal of length
*N _{x}*, where

`last_mv`

— Control signals used in plant at previous control intervalvector

Control signals used in plant at previous control interval, specified as a vector
signal of length*N _{mv}*, where

**Note**

Connect **last_mv** to the MV signals actually applied to the
plant in the previous control interval. Typically, these MV signals are the values
generated by the controller, though this is not always the case. For example, if
your controller is offline and running in tracking mode; that is, the controller
output is not driving the plant, then feeding the actual control signal to
**last_mv** can help achieve bumpless transfer when the
controller is switched back online.

`md`

— inputrow vector | matrix

If your controller prediction model has measured disturbances you must enable this port and connect to it a row vector or matrix signal.

To use the same measured disturbance values across the prediction horizon, connect **md** to a row vector signal with *N _{md}* elements, where

To vary the disturbances over the prediction horizon (previewing) from time
*k* to time *k*+*p*, connect
**md** to a matrix signal with
*N _{md}* columns and up to

To enable this port, select the **Measured disturbances**
parameter.

`state.param`

— Optional parametersvector

If your controller uses optional parameters in its prediction model, enable this
input port, and connect a vector signal with
*N _{pm}* elements, where

`Model.ParameterLength`

property of the
`nlmpcMultistage`

controller object). The controller, passes these
parameters to its model state transition and state Jacobian functions.To enable this port, select the **StateFcn parameters**
parameter.

If your controller does not use optional parameters, you must disable the
**state.param** port.

`stage.param`

— Optional parametersvector

If your controller uses optional parameters in any stage cost or constraint
function, enable this input port, and connect a vector signal with
*N _{pv}* elements, where

`sum(Stages.ParameterLength)`

, is the total number of parameters
for all stage functions. The parameters for all stages are stacked in the parameter
vector as
follows.[parameter vector for stage 1; parameter vector for stage 2; ... parameter vector for stage p+1; ]

At each stage, the controller passes the relevant parameter vector to the stage cost and constraint functions active at that stage.

To enable this port, select the **StageFcn parameters**
parameter.

If your controller does not use optional parameters, you must disable the
**stage.param** port. For more information, see `nlmpcMultistage`

and `nlmpcmove`

.

`mv.min`

— Minimum manipulated variable constraintsvector | matrix

To specify run-time minimum manipulated variable constraints, enable this input
port. If this port is disabled, the block uses the lower bounds specified in the
`ManipulatedVariables.Min`

property of its controller
object.

To use the same bounds over the prediction horizon, connect
**mv.min** to a row vector signal with
*N _{mv}* elements, where

To vary the bounds over the prediction horizon from time *k* to
time *k*+*p*-1, connect **mv.min**
to a matrix signal with *N _{y}* columns and up to

To enable this port, select the **Lower MV limits**
parameter.

`mv.max`

— Maximum manipulated variable constraintsvector | matrix

To specify run-time maximum manipulated variable constraints, enable this input
port. If this port is disabled, the block uses the upper bounds specified in the
`ManipulatedVariables.Max`

property of its controller
object.

To use the same bounds over the prediction horizon, connect
**mv.max** to a row vector signal with
*N _{mv}* elements, where

To vary the bounds over the prediction horizon from time *k* to
time *k*+*p*-1, connect **mv.max**
to a matrix signal with *N _{y}* columns and up to

To enable this port, select the **Upper MV limits**
parameter.

`dmv.min`

— Minimum manipulated variable rate constraintsvector | matrix

To specify run-time minimum manipulated variable rate constraints, enable this
input port. If this port is disabled, the block uses the lower bounds specified in the
`ManipulatedVariable.RateMin`

property of its controller object.
**dmv.min** bounds must be nonpositive.

To use the same bounds over the prediction horizon, connect
**dmv.min** to a row vector signal with
*N _{mv}* elements, where

To vary the bounds over the prediction horizon from time *k* to
time *k*+*p*-1, connect **dmv.min**
to a matrix signal with *N _{y}* columns and up to

To enable this port, select the **Lower MVRate limits**
parameter.

`dmv.max`

— Maximum manipulated variable rate constraintsvector | matrix

To specify run-time maximum manipulated variable rate constraints, enable this
input port. If this port is disabled, the block uses the upper bounds specified in the
`ManipulatedVariables.RateMax`

property of its controller object.
**dmv.max** bounds must be nonnegative.

To use the same bounds over the prediction horizon, connect
**dmv.max** to a row vector signal with
*N _{mv}* elements, where

To vary the bounds over the prediction horizon from time *k* to
time *k*+*p*-1, connect **dmv.max**
to a matrix signal with *N _{y}* columns and up to

To enable this port, select the **Upper MVRate limits**
parameter.

`x.min`

— Minimum state constraintsvector | matrix

To specify run-time minimum state constraints, enable this input port. If this
port is disabled, the block uses the lower bounds specified in the
`States.Min`

property of its controller object.

To use the same bounds over the prediction horizon, connect
**x.min** to a row vector signal with
*N _{x}* elements, where

To vary the bounds over the prediction horizon from time *k*+1 to
time *k*+*p*, connect **x.min** to
a matrix signal with *N _{y}* columns and up to

To enable this port, select the **Lower state limits**
parameter.

`x.max`

— Maximum state constraintsvector | matrix

To specify run-time maximum state constraints, enable this input port. If this
port is disabled, the block uses the upper bounds specified in the
`States.Max`

property of its controller object.

To use the same bounds over the prediction horizon, connect
**x.max** to a row vector signal with
*N _{x}* elements, where

To vary the bounds over the prediction horizon from time *k*+1 to
time *k*+*p*, connect **x.max** to
a matrix signal with *N _{y}* columns and up to

To enable this port, select the **Upper state limits**
parameter.

`x.terminal`

— Terminal statevector

Terminal state, specified as a vector signal of length
*N _{x}*. To specify desired terminal state
constraints, enable this input port. To specify desired terminal states at run-time
via this input port, you must specify finite values in the

`TerminalState`

field of the `Model`

property
of the `nlmpcMultistage`

object which is passed as a parameter to the
block. Specify `inf`

for the states that do not need to be
constrained to a terminal value. At run time, the block ignores any values in the
input signal that correspond to `inf`

values in the object. If you do
not specify any terminal value condition in the `nlmpcMultistage`

object, the signal at this input port is ignored at runtime.If this port is not enabled the terminal state constraint (if present) does not change at run time.

To enable this port, select the **Terminal state**
parameter.

`z0`

— Initial guesses for the decision variables vectorvector

To specify initial guesses for the decision variable vector, enable this input port. If this port is disabled, the block uses the decision variable sequences calculated in the previous control interval as initial guesses. Good initial guesses are important since they help the solver to converge to a solution faster.

**z0** is a column vector of length equal to the sum of the
lengths of all the decision variable vectors for each stage. The initial guesses must
be stacked
as:

[state vector guess for stage 1; manipulated variable vector guess for stage 1; manipulated variable vector rate guess for stage 1; % if used slack variable vector guess for stage 1; % if used state vector guess for stage 2; manipulated variable vector guess for stage 2; manipulated variable vector rate guess for stage 2; % if used slack variable vector guess for stage 2; % if used ... state vector guess for stage p; manipulated variable vector guess for stage p; manipulated variable vector rate guess for stage p; % if used slack variable vector guess for stage p; % if used state vector guess for stage p+1; slack variable vector guess for stage p+1; % if used ]

`nlmpcMultistage`

and `nlmpcmove`

.
To enable this port, select the **Initial guess**
parameter.

`mv`

— Optimal manipulated variable control actioncolumn vector

Optimal manipulated variable control action, output as a column vector signal of
length *N _{mv}*, where

If the solver converges to a local optimum solution
(**nlp.status** is positive), then **mv** contains
the optimal solution.

If the solver reaches the maximum number of iterations without finding an optimal
solution (**nlp.status** is zero) and the
`Optimization.UseSuboptimalSolution`

property of the controller
is:

`true`

, then**mv**contains the suboptimal solution`false`

, then**mv**is the same as**last_mv**

If the solver fails (**nlp.status** is negative), then
**mv** is the same as **last_mv**.

`cost`

— Objective function costnonnegative scalar

Objective function cost, output as a nonnegative scalar signal. The cost quantifies the degree to which the controller has achieved its objectives.

The cost value is only meaningful when the **nlp.status** output
is nonnegative.

To enable this port, select the **Optimal cost**
parameter.

`Slack`

— Stacked slack variables vectornonnegative vector

Stacked slack variables vector, used in constraint softening. If all elements are zero, then all soft constraints are satisfied over the entire prediction horizon. If any element is greater than zero, then at least one soft constraint is violated.

The slack variable vector for all stages are stacked as:

[slack variable vector for stage 1; % if used slack variable vector for stage 2; % if used ... slack variable vector for stage p+1; % if used ]

`nlp.status`

— Optimization statusscalar

Optimization status, output as one of the following:

Positive Integer — Solver converged to an optimal solution

`0`

— Maximum number of iterations reached without converging to an optimal solutionNegative integer — Solver failed

To enable this port, select the **Optimization status**
parameter.

`mv.seq`

— Optimal manipulated variable sequencematrix

Optimal manipulated variable sequence, returned as a matrix signal with *p*+1 rows and *N _{mv}* columns, where

The first *p* rows of **mv.seq** contain the
calculated optimal manipulated variable values from current time *k* to
time *k*+*p*-1. The first row of
**mv.seq** contains the current manipulated variable values (output
**mv**). Since the controller does not calculate optimal control
moves at time *k*+*p*, the final two rows of **mv.seq** are
identical.

To enable this port, select the **Optimal control sequence** parameter.

`x.seq`

— Optimal prediction model state sequencematrix

Optimal prediction model state sequence, returned as a matrix signal with *p*+1 rows and *N _{x}* columns, where

The first *p* rows of **x.seq** contain the
calculated optimal state values from current time *k* to time
*k*+*p*-1. The first row of
**x.seq** contains the current estimated state values. Since the
controller does not calculate optimal states at time *k*+*p*, the final two rows of **x.seq** are
identical.

To enable this port, select the **Optimal state sequence** parameter.

`Multistage Nonlinear MPC Controller`

— Controller object`nlmpcMultistage`

object nameYou must provide an `nlmpcMultistage`

object that defines a nonlinear MPC controller. To do so, enter the name of an
`nlmpc`

object in the MATLAB workspace.

Block Parameter:
`nlmpcobj` |

Type: string, character vector |

Default:
`""` |

`Use prediction model sample time`

— Flag for using the prediction model sample timeon (default) | off

Select this parameter to run the controller using the same sample time as its
prediction model. To use a different controller sample time, clear this parameter, and
specify the sample time using the **Make block run at a different sample
time** parameter.

To limit the number of decision variables and improve computational efficiency, you can run the controller with a sample time that is different from the prediction horizon. For example, consider the case of a nonlinear MPC controller running at 10 Hz. If the plant and controller sample times match, predicting plant behavior for ten seconds requires a prediction horizon of length 100, which produces a large number of decision variables. To reduce the number of decision variables, you can use a plant sample time of 1 second and a prediction horizon of length 10.

Block Parameter:
`UseObjectTs` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"on"` |

`Make block run at a different sample time`

— Controller sample timepositive finite scalar

Specify this parameter to run the controller using a different sample time from its prediction model.

To enable this parameter, clear the **Use prediction model sample
time** parameter.

Block Parameter:
`TsControl` |

Type: string, character vector |

Default:
`""` |

`Use MEX to speed up simulation`

— Flag for simulating controller use MEX functionoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to simulate the controller using a MEX function generated
using `buildMEX`

. Doing so reduces the simulation time of the
controller. To specify the name of the MEX function, use the **Specify MEX
function name** parameter.

Block Parameter:
`UseMEX` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Specify MEX function name`

— Controller MEX function namestring

Use this parameter to specify the name of the MEX function to use during simulation.
To create the MEX function, use the `buildMEX`

function.

To enable this parameter, select the **Use MEX to speed up
simulation** parameter.

Block Parameter:
`mexname` |

Type: string, character vector |

Default:
`""` |

`Measured disturbances`

— Add measured disturbance input portoff (default) | on

If your controller has measured disturbances, you must select this parameter to
add the **md** output port to the block.

Block Parameter:
`md_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`StateFcn parameters`

— Add state function parameters input portoff (default) | on

If your prediction model uses optional parameters, you must select this parameter
to add the **state.param** input port to the block.

Block Parameter:
`stateparam_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Stacked Stage parameters`

— Add stage functions parameter input portoff (default) | on

If your cost or constraint functions use parameters at any stage, you must select
this parameter to add the **stage.params** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`stageparam_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Optimal cost`

— Add optimal cost output portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **cost** output port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`cost_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Optimal control sequence`

— Add optimal control sequence output portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **mv.seq** output port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`mvseq_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Optimal state sequence`

— Add optimal state sequence output portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **x.seq** output port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`stateseq_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Slack variable`

— Add slack variable output portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **slack** output port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`slack_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Optimization status`

— Add optimization status output portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **nlp.status** output port to
the block.

Block Parameter:
`status_enabled` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Lower MV limits`

— Add minimum MV constraint input portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **mv.min** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`mv_min` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Upper MV limits`

— Add maximum MV constraint input portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **mv.max** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`mv_max` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Lower MVRate limits`

— Add minimum MV rate constraint input portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **dmv.min** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`mvrate_min` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Upper MVRate limits`

— Add maximum MV rate constraint input portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **dmv.max** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`mvrate_max` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Lower state limits`

— Add minimum state constraint input portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **x.min** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`state_min` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Upper state limits`

— Add maximum state constraint input portoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **x.max** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`state_max` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Terminal state`

— Terminal Stateoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **x.terminal** input port to the
block.

Block Parameter:
`terminal_state` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

`Initial guess`

— Add initial guess input portsoff (default) | on

Select this parameter to add the **z0** input port to the
block.

**Note**

By default, the Nonlinar MPC Controller block uses the calculated optimal states, manipulated variables, and slack variables from one control interval as initial guesses for the next control interval.

Enable the initial guess ports only if it is necessary for your application.

Block Parameter:
`nlp_initialize` |

Type: string, character vector |

Values:
`"off"` , `"on"` |

Default:
`"off"` |

Generate C and C++ code using Simulink® Coder™.

Usage notes and limitations:

The Multistage Nonlinear MPC Controller block supports generating code only for multistage nonlinear MPC controllers that use the default

`fmincon`

solver with the SQP algorithm.When used for code generation, nonlinear MPC controllers do not support anonymous functions for the prediction model, and stage cost and constraint functions.

You clicked a link that corresponds to this MATLAB command:

Run the command by entering it in the MATLAB Command Window. Web browsers do not support MATLAB commands.

Choose a web site to get translated content where available and see local events and offers. Based on your location, we recommend that you select: .

Select web siteYou can also select a web site from the following list:

Select the China site (in Chinese or English) for best site performance. Other MathWorks country sites are not optimized for visits from your location.

- América Latina (Español)
- Canada (English)
- United States (English)

- Belgium (English)
- Denmark (English)
- Deutschland (Deutsch)
- España (Español)
- Finland (English)
- France (Français)
- Ireland (English)
- Italia (Italiano)
- Luxembourg (English)

- Netherlands (English)
- Norway (English)
- Österreich (Deutsch)
- Portugal (English)
- Sweden (English)
- Switzerland
- United Kingdom (English)