This page contains a comprehensive listing of all MATLAB^{®} operators, symbols, and special characters.
Symbol  Role  More Information 

+  Addition  plus 
+  Unary plus  uplus 
  Subtraction  minus 
  Unary minus  uminus 
.*  Elementwise multiplication  times 
*  Matrix multiplication  mtimes 
./  Elementwise right division  rdivide 
/  Matrix right division  mrdivide 
.\  Elementwise left division  ldivide 
\  Matrix left divison (also known as backslash)  mldivide 
.^  Elementwise power  power 
^  Matrix power  mpower 
.'  Transpose  transpose 
'  Complex conjugate transpose  ctranspose 
Symbol  Role  More Information 

&  Logical AND  and 
  Logical OR  or 
&&  Logical AND (with shortcircuiting)  Logical Operators: ShortCircuit &&  
  Logical OR (with shortcircuiting)  
~  Logical NOT  not 
Symbol  Symbol Name  Role  Description  Examples  

@  At symbol  Function handle construction and reference  The  Create a function handle to a named function: fhandle = @myfun Create a function handle to an anonymous function: fhandle = @(x,y) x.^2 + y.^2;  
.  Period or dot 
 The period character separates the integral and fractional
parts of a number, such as  Decimal point: 102.5543 Elementwise operations: A.*B A.^2 Structure field access: myStruct.f1 Object property specifier: myObj.PropertyName  
...  Dot dot dot or ellipsis  Line continuation  Three or more periods at the end of a line continues the current command on the next line. If three or more periods occur before the end of a line, then MATLAB ignores the rest of the line and continues to the next line. This effectively makes a comment out of anything on the current line that follows the three periods.
 Continue a function call on the next line: sprintf('The current value ... of %s is %d',vname,value) Break a character vector up on multiple lines and concatenate the lines together: S = ['The morning had dawned '... 'clear and cold, with a crispness '... 'that hinted at the end of summer.'] To comment
out one line in a multiline command, use y = 1 +... 2 +... % 3 +... 4; However, this code runs properly since the third line does not produce a gap in the command: y = 1 +... 2 +... ... 3 +... 4;  
,  Comma  Separator  Use commas to separate row elements in an array, array subscripts, function input and output arguments, and commands entered on the same line.  Separate row elements to create an array: A = [12,13; 14,15] Separate subscripts: A(1,2) Separate input and output arguments in function calls: [Y,I] = max(A,[],2) Separate multiple commands on the same line (showing output): figure, plot(sin(pi:0.1:pi)), grid on  
:  Colon 
 Use the colon operator to create regularly spaced vectors,
index into arrays, and define the bounds of a  Create a vector: x = 1:10 Create a vector that increments by 3: x = 1:3:19 Reshape a matrix into a column vector: A(:) Assign new elements without changing the shape of an array: A = rand(3,4); A(:) = 1:12; Index a range of elements in a particular dimension: A(2:5,3) Index all elements in a particular dimension: A(:,3)
x = 1; for k = 1:25 x = x + x^2; end  
;  Semicolon 
 Use semicolons to separate rows in an array creation command, or to suppress the output display of a line of code.  Separate rows to create an array: A = [12,13; 14,15] Suppress code output: Y = max(A); Separate multiple commands on a single line (suppressing output): A = 12.5; B = 42.7, C = 1.25; B = 42.7000  
( )  Parentheses 
 Use parentheses to specify precedence of operations, enclose function input arguments, and index into an array.  Precedence of operations: (A.*(B./C))  D Function argument enclosure: plot(X,Y,'r*') C = union(A,B) Indexing: A(3,:) A(1,2) A(1:5,1)  
[ ]  Square brackets 
 Square brackets enable array construction and concatenation, creation of empty matrices, deletion of array elements, and capturing values returned by a function.  Construct a threeelement vector: X = [10 12 3] Add a new bottom row to a matrix: A = rand(3); A = [A; 10 20 30] Create an empty matrix: A = [] Delete a matrix column: A(:,1) = [] Capture three output arguments from a function: [C,iA,iB] = union(A,B)  
{ }  Curly brackets  Cell array assignment and contents  Use curly braces to construct a cell array, or to access the contents of a particular cell in a cell array.  To construct a cell array, enclose all elements of the array in curly braces: C = {[2.6 4.7 3.9], rand(8)*6, 'C. Coolidge'} Index to a specific cell array element by enclosing all indices in curly braces: A = C{4,7,2}  
%  Percent 
 The percent sign is most commonly used to indicate nonexecutable text within the body of a program. This text is normally used to include comments in your code. Some functions also interpret the percent sign as a conversion specifier. Two percent signs,  Add a comment to a block of code: % The purpose of this loop is to compute % the value of ... Use conversion specifier
with sprintf('%s = %d', name, value)  
%{ %}  Percent curly bracket  Block comments  The
 Enclose any multiline comments with percent followed by an opening or closing brace: %{ The purpose of this routine is to compute the value of ... %}  
!  Exclamation point  Operating system command  The exclamation point precedes operating system commands that you want to execute from within MATLAB.  The exclamation point initiates a shell escape function. Such a function is to be performed directly by the operating system: !rmdir oldtests  
?  Question mark  Metaclass for MATLAB class  The question mark retrieves the  Retrieve the meta.class object for class ?inputParser  
''  Single quotes  Character array constructor  Use single quotes to create character vectors that have
class  Create a character vector: chr = 'Hello, world'  
""  Double quotes  String constructor  Use double quotes to create string scalars that have
class  Create a string scalar: S = "Hello, world"  
N/A  Space character  Separator  Use the space character to separate row elements in an array constructor, or the values returned by a function. In these contexts, the space character and comma are equivalent.  Separate row elements to create an array: % These statements are equivalent A = [12 13; 14 15] A = [12,13; 14,15] Separate output arguments in function calls: % These statements are equivalent [Y I] = max(A) [Y,I] = max(A)  
~  Tilde 
 Use the tilde symbol to represent logical NOT or to suppress output of specific output arguments.  Calculate the logical NOT of a matrix: A = eye(3); ~A Determine where the elements of A = [1 1; 0 1] B = [1 2; 3 2] A~=B Return only the third output value of [~,~,iB] = union(A,B)  
=  Equal sign  Assignment  Use the equal sign to assign values to a variable. The
syntax
 Create a matrix A = [1 0; 1 0]; B = A; B(1) = 200; 
Some special characters can only be used in the text of a character vector or string. You can use these special characters to insert new lines or carriage returns, specify folder paths, and more.
Use the special characters in this table to specify a folder path using a character vector or string.
Symbol  Symbol Name  Role  Description  Examples 

 Slash and Backslash  File or folder path separation  In addition to their use as mathematical operators, the slash and backslash characters separate the elements of a path or folder. On Microsoft^{®} Windows^{®} based systems, both slash and backslash have the same effect. On The Open Group UNIX^{®} based systems, you must use slash only.  On a Windows system, you can use either backslash or slash: dir([matlabroot '\toolbox\matlab\elmat\shiftdim.m']) dir([matlabroot '/toolbox/matlab/elmat/shiftdim.m']) On a UNIX system, use only the forward slash: dir([matlabroot '/toolbox/matlab/elmat/shiftdim.m']) 
..  Dot dot  Parent folder  Two dots in succession refers to the parent of the current folder. Use this character to specify folder paths relative to the current folder.  To go up two levels in the
folder tree and down into the cd ..\..\test 
*  Asterisk  Wildcard character  In addition to being the
symbol for matrix multiplication, the asterisk Wildcards are generally
used in file operations that act on multiple files or folders. MATLAB matches
all characters in the name exactly except for the wildcard character 

@  At symbol  Class folder indicator  An  Refer to a class folder: \@myClass\get.m 
+  Plus  Package directory indicator  A  Package folders always begin
with the +mypack +mypack/pkfcn.m % a package function +mypack/@myClass % class folder in a package 
There are certain special characters that you cannot enter as
ordinary text. Instead, you must use unique character sequences to
represent them. Use the symbols in this table to format strings and
character vectors on their own or in conjunction with formatting functions
like compose
, sprintf
, and error
.
For more information, see Formatting Text.
Symbol  Effect on Text 

''  Single quotation mark 
%%  Single percent sign 
\\  Single backslash 
\a  Alarm 
\b  Backspace 
\f  Form feed 
\n  New line 
\r  Carriage return 
\t  Horizontal tab 
\v  Vertical tab 
\xN  Hexadecimal number, 
\N  Octal number, 